PC Hacking FAQ

Huge area to cover, we have assembled and written tutorials that have proven helpful over time.

PC Hacking FAQ

Postby weazy » Fri May 30, 2003 6:22 pm

==------------------==
The PC Hacking FAQ
==------------------==
Version 1.5 3/17/96
Appendix by Njan 18/09/99 <Njan@anrki.com>
----------------------------------------------------------------
Written By Olcay Cirit, <olcay@libtech.com>
----------------------------------------------------------------


Table of Contents
-----------------------
X. Introduction
1. Hardware and Firmware
a. The BIOS
Passwords
Resetting the CMOS
b. Floppy Locks
Picking Them
Buying them
c. Last Resorts
Hard Disk Extraction
2. DOS, Windows, and Netware
a. Getting access to DOS
Boot from a floppy disk
Bypass startup files
Bypass DriveSpace
Break out of Autoexec.bat
b. Getting to DOS from Windows
Password Protection
Windows Login
Third-Party Passwords
Screensavers
Windows-Based Security
DOS Through OLE
DOS Using Write
DOS Using Word
DOS through MODE
DOS through Windows Login
c. Getting Past Netware
Common Account Names
Resetting Netware
3. Building a SECURE system
a. Understanding the Issues
Potential "Hackers"
Physical Security
Software Security (+ link to appendix)
Passwords

4. Appendix. <Njan>
----------------------------------------------------------------

X. Introduction

This FAQ describes how to break-in to a PC (IBM-Compatible)
from the outside in, and how to bypass some common software-based
security measures. The last section details how to secure your
PC against most of such attacks.

Many of these solutions assume you have physical access to the
PC. For example, you can't extract the hard disk or reset the
CMOS over a network, but you can do it if you have access to the
computer.

1. Hardware and Firmware

1a. The BIOS

Passwords
=========
The BIOS, short for Basic Input/Output Services, is the control
program of the PC. It is responsible for starting up your computer,
transferring control of the system to the operating system, and
for handling other low-level functions, such as disk access.

NOTE that the BIOS is not a software program, insofar as it is
not purged from memory when you turn off the computer. It's
firmware, meaning it is permanently and unchangeably stored in
the machine. FLASH BIOS Systems, such as those from Phoenix and
AMI, allow you update the BIOS through software, but that's
another FAQ.

A convenient little feature that most BIOS manufacturers include
is a startup password. This prevents access to the system until
you enter the correct password.

If you can get access to the system after the password has been
entered, then there is a software-based BIOS password extractor
available from:

ftp://oak.oakland.edu/simtel/msdos/sysutil/amis2990.zip


Resetting the CMOS
==================
There is only one other way to get past the BIOS password.
It involves discharging the static memory (CMOS) used to store the
password and other system information. Once it is discharged,
however, you have to reset all the system settings by hand.

****Follow these steps:

1. Start up the computer
a. If the system allows it, enter the Setup Screen
(Usually by pressing F1, DEL or INS during
the memory check)
b. Record all the Setup Information. Double Check.
2. Turn off the computer
3. Remove the casing, and put the computer on the ground in
such a way that you can see and access the side of
the motherboard with the processor on it.
4. Look at the motherboard
a. If you can see a round, disc-like battery, then
remove it, and let the computer sit without
the battery for 15-30 minutes. Put the battery
back in.
b. If you have access to the circuit diagrams for the
motherboard, look in there for the password or
CMOS jumper. Flip it on and off.
c. Look for a blue, soldered-in battery with a jumper
running off of it. This jumper is for connecting
an external battery. Pull it out for 15-30 min.
to reset the CMOS.
5. Replace the computer casing.
6. Enter the Setup Screen, and set the Setup Information
back to the original values that you (hopefully)
recorded.

If you were unable to record the setup info, then you'll just have
to set it up manually. Some newer Plug & Play BIOSes have an
autodetect feature that automatically sets-up the hard disk and
other items.

Again, I would like to mention that there are numerous password
extractors available for free off the internet and on BBSes. Try
those first: they are much cleaner and easier-to-use.

----------------------------------------------------------------

1b. Floppy Locks

Floppy Locks are generally cheap plastic inserts that hook on
to the inside of the drive and lock it, thereby preventing you from
using the floppy drive. The locks used are usually those little
swivel locks used in computer casings to lock the keyboard.

There ARE some very secure locks, with *unique* keys. Such locks
are not sold at your local computer store, and must be obtained
directly from a factory in Nice, France (didn't get the name,
though.). There is a distributor in Canada by the name of "Kappa
Micro".

If the lock is of the swivel type, you can either pick it, or
buy a key (they're all the same).

To pick it, you'll need a *thin* flathead screwdriver
or a paperclip. To pick the lock, take the paperclip and insert it
into the little notch on the inside of the swivel lock. Now, pull to
the opposite side of the lock until the swivel is in the unlocked
position.

If you choose to buy a key, you can:

A. Go to your local computer service center, and buy
one of these keys. (Very cheap. Often less than
$0.75)
B. Buy the same brand of floppy lock, and use the key
that comes with it.

----------------------------------------------------------------

1c. Last Resorts

If you are *REALLY* desperate to access this PC, then the following
*might* work:

1. Remove the PC Casing
2. Extract the hard disk (By unscrewing and disconnecting)
3. Transfer it to another computer. (Make sure that it is
NOT set as the boot drive.)
4. Start up this computer, and access the
hard disk from there.

This will probably not work if an encrypted file system is in
use. The only way to access such disks is to enter the password,
or figure out a way to decrypt it, so if you forget your password,
you're hosed. :(

----------------------------------------------------------------

2. DOS, Windows, and Netware

2a. Getting access to DOS

Some systems, are set up to boot directly to some sort of
shell/security program, like Windows, or Windows 95. If you
want to get access to a DOS prompt, you have some choices:

A. Boot from a floppy disk
B. Bypass startup files
C. Bypassing DriveSpace
D. Break out of Autoexec.bat

***Booting from a floppy requires you to create a system disk.
You can do this using the DOS command FORMAT A: /S which will
format a disk and place system files on it. Also, the Windows
format (In File Manager or Explorer) has an option allowing you
to create a system floppy.

Before you create a system disk, you must determine which
floppy drive is used to boot. If the system has both a
1.2MB (5.25") Floppy Drive and a 1.44MB (3.5") Drive, it is likely
that the boot drive is the 1.2 MB floppy drive. If the computer
has only one floppy drive, it is quite safe to assume that it is
the boot drive.

However, if you are unsure as to which drive is the boot drive,
you can either find out by entering System Setup (as described
in section 1) or by observing which floppy drive is read right
before the operating system loads.

If the system is set to boot only from the hard disk, then you
can refer to Section 1 on how to reset the CMOS.

Once you have a system disk, you place it in the floppy drive,
and turn on or reset the computer. If you have done everything
right, the computer will boot from the floppy drive and you will
have access to a DOS prompt.

This technique, of course, can be prevented through the use of a
floppy lock, and by setting the BIOS to boot only from the hard
disk.

***Bypassing startup files is quite simple, but only works on
versions of DOS 6.0 or better and Windows 95. When you turn on
the computer and you see the text:

Starting MS-DOS ...

or
Starting PC-DOS ...

or
Starting Windows 95 ...

Press and hold the SHIFT or F5 key IMMEDIATELY. This will bypass
the startup files (CONFIG.SYS and AUTOEXEC.BAT) as long as the
system administrator has not disabled this feature.

Additionally, you can press and hold F8 when the startup
text shows to enter the Boot menu. This lets you selectively
disable certain commands, or bypass the startup files totally,
among other things.

***Bypassing DriveSpace works if compression software such as
DriveSpace or DoubleSpace has been installed. If so, when
the startup text displays, press and hold Ctrl+F5 or Ctrl+F8.
This will load the system without loading the compression
driver, which means you can't access the files on disk.

HOWEVER, you *can* decompress the disk (DriveSpace only), as
long as you have sufficient disk space or enough floppies.

If all else fails, you can format it or take it to a Specialized
Data Recovery service. They can probably recover the files by
moving them to a larger hard disk and decompressing.

***Breaking out of AUTOEXEC.BAT is rather simple also. When the
computer starts up and the operating system starts loading, press
Ctrl+Break (Or Ctrl+C) repeatedly. When the AUTOEXEC.BAT executes,
this will terminate it and drop you to DOS. This will work unless
the keyboard has been disabled, or is inactive during
initialization (Drivers can be loaded in CONFIG.SYS which
temporarily disable the keyboard, and then re-enable it with a
command at the end of AUTOEXEC.BAT)

----------------------------------------------------------------

2b. Getting to DOS from Windows

If the above tactics fail, and the machine automatically loads
Windows, then you still have a very good chance of getting to DOS.
Since Windows by default gives you free access to DOS, there are
special security programs made specifically to prevent the user
from accessing it, among other things. Most of these programs
can be bypassed.

Password Protection
===================
If when Windows starts up you are presented with yet another
password dialog box, analyze the situation:

Windows Login
-------------
If this is the Primary Windows Login or a Network login,
then you can get past it by pressing the Cancel button (No
Joke!) to log on as the Default user. This is because the Login
information is used primarily for desktop preferences and
remote file sharing.

the Default user, however, can be secured. If this is done, then
it is virtually impossible to gain access through it. The only
way to do this is by a series of registry entries, which are listed
in the appendix at the bottom of this file.

Login passwords are stored in .PWL files in the Windows
directory. You can reset all accounts to no password by
using the .PWL renaming technique described below.

The filename of the .PWL file corresponds to the login name of
that user. For example, Olcay.pwl contains the encrypted
passwords for the account "Olcay".

The password protection in Windows 95 uses a much stronger
algorithm, but you can still bypass it by *carefully* moving
or renaming all .PWL files in the C:\Windows directory. The
password filenames are also stored in the SYSTEM.INI file.

So, to disable passwords:

CD \WINDOWS
REN *.PWL *.PW_

Similarly, to re-enable passwords:

CD \WINDOWS
REN *.PW_ *.PWL



Third-Party Password
--------------------
If this is a third-party security program, such as the one
built-in to After Dark, try pressing Ctrl+Alt+Del when the
dialog is presented to you. Most security programs go out of
their way to be secure, and Windows 3.1 interprets this as not
responding to the system, and thus will allow you close it.
Windows 95 pops up a neat little dialog box that lets you
terminate any running application. How convenient. :) Once you
subvert this, you can prevent it from bothering you again by
editing the LOAD= and RUN= sections in C:\WINDOWS\WIN.INI.


Screensavers
------------
The password protection built-in to the Windows 3.1
screensavers is extremely weak. You can bypass it by editing
CONTROL.INI and searching for the Password field. Delete the
junk that appears after the equal sign (This is an encrypted
password).

To disable Windows 95 passwords, right-click on the desktop
and select Properties, choose the Screen Saver tab, and uncheck
"Password protected".




Windows-Based Security
======================
If Windows starts up, and Program Manager loads, but the File
menu is disabled, and access to DOS has been cut off, or some
other oppressive security measures are in place, fear not. There
are ways around such programs, as shall be explained below:


DOS through OLE
---------------
OLE, for Object Linking and Embedding, was hailed as a great advance
in the Windows Operating System by letting you embed or link objects
(this includes Executables) in documents.

Scorpion pointed out that Object Packager, which lets you package
embedded files with icons, could be used to access DOS (or run any
program) from most OLE-enabled applications (Like Write, WordPad,
Word, etc.) Based on this information, I found a similar hole that
doesn't require Object Packager but still exploits OLE. Both of
these work in Windows 3.x and up.

Using Object Packager:

1. Start up Write or WordPad
2. Select "Object" from the "Insert" menu
a. The location of the Insert Object command
may vary. Look Around.
3. Choose Package from the list, and click OK
4. Select "Import" from the "File" menu
5. Enter C:\COMMAND.COM, and select OK
6. Select "Update" Under the "File" menu
7. Go back to your document, and double click
on the COMMAND.COM icon

Using Insert:

1. Start up Write or WordPad
2. Select "Object" from the "Insert" menu
a. Again, the location of the Insert Object command
may vary. Look Around.
3. Select "Create from File"
4. Enter C:\COMMAND.COM as the filename
5. Click OK, go back to your document, and double click
on the COMMAND.COM icon


DOS through Write
-----------------
This works by saving COMMAND.COM, the DOS executable, over WINHELP.EXE,
the Windows Help program. Unfortunately, this tactic will not work with
Windows 95. WordPad, the Word Processing Applet that comes with Windows
95, prevents the user from loading executable files.


1. Go into Accessories, and start up Write (*NOT* NOTEPAD!!)
2. Open C:\COMMAND.COM
3. A dialog box will pop up. Select "NO CONVERSION"
4. Select Save As...
5. Save it as C:\WINDOWS\WINHELP.EXE
6. If it asks if you want to overwrite WINHELP.EXE, choose
YES
7. Press F1. Normally, this loads Windows Help, but now it
will create a DOS prompt window.





DOS through Word
----------------
Microsoft Word versions 6.0 and above have a built-in macro
language called WordBasic. This example works by instructing
WordBasic to open up a DOS window.

Most of the Macro languages of popular applications let you
do something similar to this technique. Look around in the
online help files.

1. If Microsoft Word is installed, start it up.
2. From the Tools Menu, select Macro.
3. Type in a Macro name, and click "Create"
4. When the Macro window comes up, type in one of the
following depending on which Windows you are using:

For Windows 3.1: Shell Environ$("COMSPEC")
For Windows 95: Shell Environ$("COMMAND")
For Windows NT: Shell Environ$("CMD")

If all else fails: Shell "C:\COMMAND.COM"

5. Run the macro by pressing the little play button on the
macro toolbar. This will launch a DOS prompt.





DOS through MODE
----------------
When Windows 95 Shuts Down and shows that dumb graphic, it's
really just sitting on top of DOS. You can actually issue DOS
commands (although the graphic will cover them) on the system
after shutdown!!!

A simple way to do this is to type:

CLS

After the shutdown graphic shows. However, the text will be in
40-column mode, which is hard to read, and incompatible with
some programs.

If you want to get a nice, clean DOS prompt, you can type:

MODE CO80

This will reset the screen display to the normal (80-column,
16 color) DOS display mode.

*MOST* Windows Security programs are based on a VxD (Virtual Device),
which gives them unprecented power over the system while Windows
is running. After shutdown, all Windows-based programs will be
unloaded, leaving you free to explore using DOS.

For some unknown reason, this doesn't seem to work on some systems.




DOS through Windows Login
-------------------------
When Windows 95 Starts up, some systems are set up to show
a Windows/Network Login dialog box. You can press either

Ctrl+Alt+Del

Which will let you Shut down the system (and apply the DOS
THROUGH MODE technique), End any running tasks, etc. Or:

Ctrl+Esc

Which, since the taskbar hasn't loaded, will launch Task
Manager. From this window you can end tasks, run programs,
and shutdown the system (again, the DOS THROUGH MODE technique
is applicable here). *All* programs are accessible from the run
menu, so you can run C:\COMMAND.COM to get access to DOS.

----------------------------------------------------------------



2c. Getting past NetWare

This section is based on excerpts from the Netware Hacking FAQ.
Although Netware has met a general decline in use over the years,
I still thought it would be proper to include this.

Common Account Names
====================
Novell Netware has the following default accounts: SUPERVISOR, GUEST,
and Netware 4.x has ADMIN and USER_TEMPLATE as well. All of these have
no password set. Don't be a dummy, password protect SUPERVISOR and
ADMIN immediately. Below is a listing of common default and built-in
accounts that might be in your best interest to secure.

Account Purpose
------- ---------------------------------------------------
POST Attaching to a second server for email
MAIL

PRINT Attaching to a second server for printing
LASER
HPLASER
PRINTER
LASERWRITER

ROUTER Attaching an email router to the server

BACKUP May have password/station restrictions (see below),
WANGTEK used for backing up the server to a tape unit
attached to the workstation. For complete backups,
Supervisor equivalence is required.

TEST A test user account for temp use

ARCHIVIST Palindrome default account for backup

CHEY_ARCHSVR An account for Arcserve to login to the server from
from the console for tape backup. Version 5.01g's
password was WONDERLAND.

GATEWAY Attaching a gateway machine to the server
GATE

FAX Attaching a dedicated fax modem unit to the network
FAXUSER
FAXWORKS

WINDOWS_PASSTHRU Although not required, per the Microsoft Win95
Resource Kit, Ch. 9 pg. 292 and Ch. 11 pg. 401 you
need this for resource sharing without a password.



Resetting Netware
=================
When NetWare is first installed, the account SUPERVISOR and GUEST
are left unprotected, that is, with no password. SUPERVISOR has
free run of the system. You can do anything you want.

But how can you make the server think it has just been installed
without actually reinstalling the server and losing all data on
the disk? Simple. You just delete the files that contain the
security system!

In Netware 2.x, all security information is stored in two files
(NET$BIND.SYS and NET$BVAL.SYS). Netware 3.x stores that information
in three files (NET$OBJ.SYS, NET$VAL.SYS and NET$PROP.SYS). The all
new Netware 4.x system stores all login names and passwords in five
different files (PARTITIO.NDS, BLOCK.NDS, ENTRY.NDS, VALUE.NDS
and UNINSTAL.NDS [This last file may not be there, don't worry]).

Although Novell did a very good job encrypting passwords, they left all
directory information easy to find and change if you can access the
server's disk directly, using common utilities like Norton's Disk Edit.

Using this utility as an example, I'll give a step-by-step procedure
to make these files vanish. All you need is a bootable DOS disk,
Norton Utilities' Emergency Disk containing the DiskEdit program and
some time near the server.

1. Boot the server and go to the DOS prompt. To do this, just let the
network boot normally and then use the DOWN and EXIT commands. This
procedure does not work on old Netware 2.x servers and in some
installations where DOS has been removed from memory. In those cases,
you'll have to use a DOS bootable disk.

2. Run Norton's DiskEdit utility from drive A:

3. Select "Tools" in the main menu and then select "Configuration".
At the configuration window, uncheck the "Read-Only" checkbox. And
be very careful with everything you type after this point.

4. Select "Object" and then "Drive". At the window, select the C: drive
and make sure you check the button "physical drive". After that,
you'll be looking at your physical disk and you be able to see
(and change) everything on it.

5. Select "Tools" and then "Find". Here, you'll enter the name of the
file you are trying to find. Use "NET$BIND" for Netware 2,
"NET$PROP.SYS" for Netware 3 and "PARTITIO.NDS" for Netware 4. It is
possible that you find these strings in a place that is not the
Netware directory. If the file names are not all near each other and
proportionaly separated by some unreadable codes (at least 32 bytes
between them), then you it's not the place we are looking for. In
that case, you'll have to keep searching by selecting "Tools" and
then "Find again". [In Netware 3.x, you can change all occurences of
the bindery files and it should still work okay])

6. You found the directory and you are ready to change it. Instead of
deleting the files, you'll be renaming them. This will avoid problems
with the directory structure (like lost FAT chains). Just type "OLD"
over the existing "SYS" or "NDS" extension. Be extremely careful and
don't change anything else.

7. Select "Tools" and then "Find again". Since Netware store the
directory information in two different places, you have to find the
other copy and change it the same way. This will again prevent
directory structure problems.

8. Exit Norton Disk Edit and boot the server again. If you're running
Netware 2 or 3, your server would be already accessible. Just go to
any station and log in as user Supervisor. No password will be asked.
If you're running Netware 4, there is one last step.

9. Load Netware 4 install utility (just type LOAD INSTALL at the console
prompt) and select the options to install the Directory Services. You
be prompted for the Admin password while doing this. After that, you
may go to any station and log in as user Admin, using the password
that you have selected.

**NOTE: If Disk Edit is unavailable, any Disk Editing utility with
searching capabilities will suffice.

----------------------------------------------------------------


3. Building a SECURE System

3a. Understanding the Issues

Potential "Hackers"
===================
After reading this FAQ, you've probably revised your idea of a
secure PC quite a bit. Truth be told, IBM didn't design the Personal
Computer with security in mind. Back in 1980, their main objective was
to get _something_ to market before Apple gobbled up all the market
share.

After awhile, security programs started to emerge that attempted
to bridge this gap. These were quite popular, and were put into use
by many companies to prevent 'curious' employees from messing with
the computers.

However, ways to bypass these security programs were quickly found.
As long as computers are designed for convenience, and with humans
in mind, this will almost always happen.

So, who are potential "Hackers"? The answer is: Anyone. Experienced
users especially, but even newbies sometimes find weak spots. This
is not to say that everyone *is* a "hacker". (Note that I use quotes
because I don't believe in the popular usage of the term "Hacker".
The media is out of control: their usage of the word has conflated
Computer Gurus with Criminals in the minds of the people.)

As always, prevention is the best medicine. The following sections
deal with how to secure your system, both through physical and
software-based means.



Physical Security
=================
In the old days, back when computers filled multiple rooms, the
security of a system was basically all physical: Locks, security
guards, etc. Now the emphasis has shifted away from physical security,
and is leaning more towards software-based methods. However,
in some cases, a certain degree of physical security is in order.

***If you want to prevent people from resetting your CMOS and
accessing the floppy drives, etc. you have to secure the system
itself. This can be done by having the computer in a locked room,
leaving only the screen and keyboard accessible. There are many
products which let you extend the reach of screen and keyboard cables.
Even some that let you control many different computers using one
screen.

***There are also security devices available made by companies such as
Anchor Pad, Lucasey, and others that completely enclose the PC.
These are devices such as lockdown pads, cables for monitors, and
metal boxes. There are also devices that cover and lock the floppy
and CD-ROM slots.

***Computer locks which bind your computer to a desk are good for
discouraging theft.

***To protect your hard disk data, I would suggest investing in a
removable media system that lets you "hot-swap" and lock hard disks.
The hard disk could then be easily removed (with the *unique* key)
and stored in a safe to prevent theft of data. Drives such as
the Zip (100MB), Ditto (800MB), and Jaz (1GB) are removable as well,
but do not lock.

Make sure that you test the computer immediately after these
lockdown devices are installed. In some instances the stress induced
on the casing by the devices can cause certain parts to malfunction.

***You can buy devices that prevent the PC electrical cord from
being unplugged or turned on without a key.

***Investing in a UPS (Uninterruptable Power Supply) System is worth
the cost. These protect against power fluxes which can damage your
system. In the case of a power out (or if someone trips over the cord),
UPS systems give you 5 minutes of rechargeable battery power to save
work and perform an emergency shutdown.

***As one last measure of security, it's always nice to invest in
some insurance for your computer. It won't get your data back,
but it *will* give you some peace of mind.



Software-Based Security
=======================
Below is a list of measures you can take to secure your system using
software/firmware based methods. They are listed in order of
increasing security, so minimum security would be only implementing
option #1, maximum security would be implementing #1-8. Keep in
mind that implementing any of these without implementing every item
below it leaves possible entry points open.

1. Set up a BIOS password for both the Setup screen *and*
access to the system.
a. Make sure the password is not easily guessable
(i.e., birthdate, name backwards, etc. are
easily guessed) See next section.
b. Make sure that the password is the maximum possible
number of characters supported by the BIOS.
2. Disable floppy booting from within the BIOS
3. Disable Bypass of startup files
a. This is done by adding the line:
SWITCHES=/F /N
to the CONFIG.SYS file.
b. Additionally, you might want to precede
all statements in the Autoexec.bat
with CTTY NUL, and then have CTTY CON
as the last line. This prevents breaking
out of autoexec.bat
c. If you use DriveSpace compression, add the
following line to your DRVSPACE.INI file:
SWITCHES=/F /N
d. Add the line:
BREAK OFF
This reduces the number of chances you have to
break out of AUTOEXEC.BAT, all though it doesn't
switch it off entirely
4. Set up a DOS-based Security TSR
a. Make sure you cannot access the floppy drive
without a password, and that it allows
for write-protection.
b. Make sure it allows for password protection.
5. Set up a Windows-Based Security program
a. Make sure you can control which features of
Windows you can limit or disable.
b. Make sure it allows for password protection.
6. Install Windows Security Policies using Policy Editor (see Appendix)
7. Install an encrypted filesystem program. (i.e., CryptDisk)
a. This will prevent access to the computer and
files on the hard disk unless the password
is entered. It will render your data
unaccessible even if the hard disk is
extracted from the system.
8. Delete the following DOS programs (or move them to
a floppy):
FORMAT
DELTREE
SUBST
JOIN
BACKUP
RESTORE
ATTRIB
MODE


Passwords
=========
Passwords are generally the weakest link in the security chain.
When choosing a password, remember these tips:

Do NOT choose something obvious: Swear words, your birthdate,
topics pertaining to what you do and/or your interests are are
examples of BAD passwords.

A Good Password is one that is totally random. To pick a password,
try this: Grab a dictionary. Close your eyes, and flip to a
random page. With your eyes still closed, put your finger on a
random spot on this page. Remember the word, and do this again.
Combine the two words, and append a three-digit number to the end.
You also might want to intersperse non-alphanumeric characters
into the password in random ways, such as an odd dash or
apostrophe here and there.

Also, NEVER write your password down. Always keep it in your head.
A simple Post-It note on your monitor can bring down all the
security that you so meticulously set up!

A good password system hides the passwords from everyone,
including the system administrators. This means that the sys
admins cannot tell if the users are putting in weak passwords.

One final note: When designing a security system, be sure to take
the user into account. If a system is of such high-grade security
that it is a nuisance to use, people will always find the lazy
way to do it. (Post-it Notes...)

----------------------------------------------------------------





Appendix ( (c) Njan 1999 )

1. First, logon on as the default user (push the ESC key)
2. Click Start/Run type REGEDIT and push ENTER
3. Go to the directory: HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Policies\Explorer (If the key Explorer doesn't exist, you'll have to make it)
4. Create new binary values for:
NoClose If set to "01 00 00 00" then you can't Shut Down windows (you can logoff)
NoDesktop If set to "01 00 00 00" then there's no icons on the desktop at all)
NoDrives If set to "ff ff ff ff" then you can't access any drive from windows explorer
NoFavoritesMenu If set to "01 00 00 00" then there's no Favorites menu on the Start Bar
NoFind If set to "01 00 00 00" then there's no Find menu on the Start
NoFolderOptions If set to "01 00 00 00" then you can't change folder options
NoLogoff If set to "01 00 00 00" then you can't log off
NoRecentDocsMenu If set to "01 00 00 00" then there's no Recent Documents Menu on the Start Bar
NoRun If set to "01 00 00 00" then there's no Run command on the Start Bar
NoSaveSettings If set to "01 00 00 00" then and window positions will not be saved
NoSetActiveDesktop If set to "01 00 00 00" then you can't configure Active Desktop
NoSetFolders If set to "01 00 00 00" then you can't edit the ShortCuts which are on the Start Bar
NoSetTaskbar If set to "01 00 00 00" then you get into Control Panel
NoViewContextMenu If set to "01 00 00 00" then you can't right-click on the desktop
NoFile If set to "01 00 00 00" then removes the "File" menu option on explorer
EditLevel If set to "0x00000004 (4)" then disables the ability to create/delete shortcuts
AddPrinter If set to "01 00 00 00" then you can't add a printer
DeletePrinter If set to "01 00 00 00" then you can't delete a printer
NoDriveTypeAutoRun If set to "01 00 00 00" stops windows from automaticly playing/loading CDs
NoNetHood If set to "01 00 00 00" disables the network neighbourhood
NoStartBanner If set to "01 00 00 00" removes that annoying "Click here to begin" banner
5. Go to the directory: HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Policies\Network (If the key Explorer doesn't exist, you'll have to make it)
NoEntireNetwork If set to "01 00 00 00" then disables all access to the network
NoFileSharingControl If set to "01 00 00 00" stops you changing the sharing controls on your computer
NoNetSetup If set to "01 00 00 00" disables you changing the network settings
NoNetSetupIDPage If set to "01 00 00 00" then you can't edit the computers ID
NoNetSetupSecurityPage If set to "01 00 00 00" then you can't setup security on the network
6. Go to the directory: HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Policies\System (If the key Explorer doesn't exist, you'll have to make it)
NoConfigPage 'My computer right clicking

NoDevMgrPage
NoDispAppearancePage
NoDispBackgroundPage
NoDispCPL
NoDispScrSavPage
NoDispSettingPage
NoFileSysPage
NoProfilePage
NoSecCPL
NoVirtMemPage

7. Then using these you can log on as each user and change their settings.
8. Other places in the registry:
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Policies\Explorer (Restrictions in here affect all users)


If you have Windows 3.0, 3.1 or 3.11
1. Load up NotePad
2. Open PROGMAN.INI
3. At the bottom of the file, add these lines:
[Restrictions]
EditLevel=4 Chose an edit level restrict 1 - 4, 1 being least restriction, 4 being most.
NoRun=1 Get rid of the "Run" option
NoClose=1 Means you can't exit Windows
NoSaveSettings=1 Means you can't save Window positions
NoFile=1

4. To stop access to the Control Panel, then just delete the icons

To partialy protect DOS access while booting, you can disable/reenable the key board.
Put the command: CTTY > NUL at the top of your AUTOEXEC.BAT and then CTTY > CON at the end of your AUTOEXEC.BAT

Then to stop access to DOS by crashing Windows, add these commands to the bottom of your AUTOEXEC.BAT
:WINLOOP
C:\WIN\WIN.COM
GOTO WINLOOP

Note: These registry keys took months of work to find out. Do NOT redistribute under or your own name, or die a horrible death. Appendix may be distributed with Njan's permission. Main Tutorial? I don't know. Ask the bloke that made it.
--The Devil is in the Details--
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